The Nervous System

What are the functions of the nervous system’s main divisions?

To live is to take information from the world and the body’s tissues, to make decisions, and send back information and orders to the body’s tissues. All this happens thanks to our body’s speedy electrochemical communications network, our nervous system. The brain and spinal cord form the central nervous system (CNS), which communicates with the body’s sensory receptors, muscles, and glands via the peripheral nervous system (PNS).


The functional divisions of the human nervous system


Neurons are the nervous systems building blocks. PNS information travels through axons that are bundled into electrical cables we know as nerves. The optic nerve for example, bundles a million axon fibres into a single cable carrying the messages each eye sends to the brain. Information travels in the nervous system through sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons.

The Peripheral Nervous System

Our peripheral nervous system has two components – somatic and autonomic. Our somatic nervous system enables voluntary control of our skeletal muscles. Our autonomic nervous system controls our glands and muscles of our internal organs, influencing such functions as glandular activity, heartbeat, and digestion. Like an automatic pilot, this system may be consciously overridden, but usually it operates on its own (autonomously).

The autonomic nervous system serves two important, basic functions. The sympathetic nervous system arouses and expends energy. If something alarms, enrages, or challenges you, your sympathetic system will accelerate your heartbeat, raise your blood pressure, slow your digestion, raise your blood sugar, and cool you with perspiration, making you alert and ready for action. When the stress subsides, your parasympathetic nervous system produces opposite effects. It conserves energy as it calms you by decreasing your heartbeat, lowering your blood sugar, and so forth. In everyday situations, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems work together to keep you in a steady internal state.

The Central Nervous System

From the simplicity of neurons ‘talking’ to other neurons arises the complexity of the central nervous system’s brain and spinal cord. It is the brain that enables our humanity – our thinking, feeling, and acting. Tens of billions of neurons, each communicating with thousands of other neurons, yield an ever-changing wiring diagram that dwarfs a powerful computer. With some 40 billion neurons, each having roughly 10,000 contacts with other neurons, we end up with perhaps 400 trillion synapses- places where neurons meet and greet their neighbours. A grain-of -sand -sized – speck of your brain contains some 100,000 neurons and one billion ‘talking’ synapses.

The brain’s neurons cluster into work groups called neural networks. Like people networking with people, neuron network with nearby neurons with which they can have short, fast connections. The cells in each layer of a neural network connect with various cells in the next layer. Learning occurs as feedback strengthens connections. Learning to play the violin, for example, builds neural connections. Neurons that fire together wire together.


The dual functions of the autonomic nervous system


The spinal cord is an information highway connecting the peripheral nervous system to the brain. Ascending neural fibres send up sensory information and descending fibres send back motor-control information. The neural pathways governing our reflexes, our automatic responses to stimuli illustrate the spinal cord’s work. A simple spinal reflex pathway is composed of a single sensory neuron and a single motor- neuron. These often communicate through an interneuron. The knee- jerk response involves one such simple pathway. A headless warm body could do it.

Another such pathway enables the pain reflex. When your finger touches a flame, neural activity excited by the heat travels via sensory neurons to interneurons in your spinal cord. These interneurons respond by activating motor neurons leading to the muscles in your arm. Because the simple pain reflex pathway runs through the spinal cord and right back out, your hand jerks away from the candle’s flame before your brain receives and responds to the information that causes you to feel pain. That’s why it feels as if your hand jerks away not by your choice, but on its own.


A simplified neural network: learning to play the violin.


Information travels to and from the brain by way of the spinal cord. Were the top of your spinal cord severed, you would not feel pain from your body below. Nor would you feel pleasure. With your brain literally out of touch with your body, you would lose all sensation and voluntary movement in body regions with sensory and motor connections to the spinal cord below its point of injury. You would exhibit the knee- jerk without feeling the tap. When the brain centre keeping the brakes on erection is severed, men paralyzed below the waist may be capable of an erection ( a simple reflex) if their genitals are stimulated. Females similarly paralyzed may respond with vaginal lubrication. But, depending on where and how completely the spinal cord is severed, they may be genitally unresponsive to erotic images and have no genital feeling. To produce bodily pain or pleasure, the sensory information must reach the brain.


A simple reflex


How does the endocrine system- the body’s slower information system- transmit its messages?

Interconnected with your nervous system is a second communications, the endocrine system. The endocrine system’s glands secrete another form of chemical messengers, harmonies, which travel through the blood stream and affect other tissues, including the brain. When they act on the brain, they influence our interest in sex, food and aggression.

Some hormones are chemically identical to neurotransmitters (those chemical messengers that diffuse across a synapse and excite or inhibit an adjacent neuron). The endocrine system and nervous system are therefore close relatives. Both produce molecules that act on receptors elsewhere. Like many relatives, they also differ. The speedy nervous system zips messages from eyes to brain to hand in a fraction of a second. Endocrine messages trudge along the bloodstream, taking several seconds or more to travel from the gland to the target tissue. If the nervous system’s communication delivers message rather like e-mail, the endocrine system is the body’s snail mail. But slow and steady sometimes wins the race. Endocrine messages tend to outlast the effects of neural messages. That helps explain why upset feelings may linger, sometimes beyond our thinking about what upset us. It takes time for us to ‘simmer down’. In a moment of danger, for example, the autonomic nervous system orders the adrenal glands on top of the kidneys to release epinephrine and non-epinephrine (also called adrenaline and non-adrenaline). These hormones increase heart rate, blood pressure and blood sugar, providing us with a surge of energy. When the emergency passes, the hormones—and the feelings of excitement—linger a while. The endocrine system’s hormones influence many aspects of our lives—growth, reproduction, metabolism, mood—working with our nervous system to keep everything in balance while we respond to stress, exertion, and our own thoughts.


The endocrine system


The most influential endocrine gland is the pituitary gland, a pea-sized structure located in the core of the brain, where it is controlled by an adjacent brain area, the hypothalamus. The pituitary releases hormones that influence growth, and its secretions also influence the release of hormones by other glands.  The pituitary, then, is a sort of master gland (whose own master is the hypothalamus). For example, under the brain’s influence, the pituitary triggers your sex glands to release sex hormones. These in turn, influence your brain and behaviour. This feedback system (brain-pituitary-other glands-hormones-brain) reveals the intimate connection of the nervous and endocrine systems. The nervous system directs endocrine secretions which then affect the nervous system. Conducting and coordinating the whole electrochemical orchestra is that maestro we call brain.

By courtesy of: Psychology by David G. Myers, Worth Publishers, New York, NY 2010

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2015 in review

The stats helper monkeys prepared a 2015 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

A San Francisco cable car holds 60 people. This blog was viewed about 380 times in 2015. If it were a cable car, it would take about 6 trips to carry that many people.

Click here to see the complete report.

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Fighters with Pakistan Air Force

Tempest -1  Tempest-3


Hawker Tempest represented the final version of the design which had led to the Typhoon in 1940. It proved to be disappointing as an interceptor but an excellent attack aircraft. The Tempest was one of the fastest propeller-driven aircraft deployed by the RAF in the last year of the war. It distinguished itself above all in two particular duties which it shared with the Spitfire Mk. XIV: the interception of the Messerschmitt Me. 262 jets and attacking V-1 flying bombs. The success of this extremely particular role can be demonstrated by a few statistics from June 13 to Sept. 5, 1944, around a third (638) of the 1771 V-1s destroyed by the British air defense were shot down by6 Tempests. A precise combat tactic was perfected: fitted with supplementary tanks which allowed them a maximum patrol time 4.5 hours at an altitude of 9600 feet (3000 meters), remaining in constant contact with radar stations on the ground which provided them with information on the trajectories of the V-1s. Since the bombs flew at altitudes of 960-7700 feet (300-2400 meters), the Tempest usually attacked in a dive, allowing them to achieve significant speed margins. The heavy on-board weaponry did the rest, even if in some cases, pilots who had run out of munitions managed to pull up alongside the  V-1s and make them dive into the sea by flipping them over with their wing tip. The main production variant in the war period was the Mk. 5 of which 800 were built to August 1945. It made its maiden flight on Sept. 2, 1942, and entered service in April 1944. The Tempest Mk. 6 (142 built) in which a different engine was fitted (a 2300 hp Napier Sabre) and the radically different Mk. 11 (764 built) with its 2526 hp Bristol Centaurus radial engine arrived too late to take part in the war. These last two versions of the Tempest remained in service until 1949 and 1951 respectively.         

Fury-1  Fury 3


Hawker Sea Fury was the last in the line of a famous family of fighters designed by Sydney Camm, the “father” of the Hurricane, the Sea Fury was the last combat aircraft to use a piston engine in the Fleet Air Arm and one of the best in its class. Although designed during the Second World War, and originally destined for the RAF and for the Royal Navy Air Corps, this fast and powerful single-seater entered service only after the war was over and only as an on-board fighter. However, well into the jet age, the Sea Fury still manage to hold its own: the Royal Navy kept it front- line service from 1947 to 1954, a period of seven years, and purchased 615 out of an overall production of 860. Its baptism of fire was the Korean War, in which the Sea Fury took an active part with the units on board the aircraft carriers Ocean, Theseus, Glory and Sydney. On many occasions it proved to be superior even to the enemy’s more modern jet fighters, especially in ground attack missions, where the better handling at lower altitudes of this propeller-driven airplane compared with jets was a great advantage. There were a number of victories against the MiG -15: the first was recorded on Aug. 9, 1952, by a pilot of 802 squadron on board the Ocean, Lieutenant Peter Carmichael.

Work on the project had begun in 1943, at the request of the two armed forces, and was originally aimed at producing a lighter version of the Tempest fighter fitted with a radial engine. The optimal configuration was achieved by installing a large and powerful Bristol Centaurus engine in a cell characterized by a sleek fuselage and a wing structure similar to that of the Tempest, but shorter and lighter. The prototype made its maiden flight on September 1, 1944, but the end of the war led to canceling of RAF orders. This left the Royal Navy, and in 1945 Hawker perfected the naval version of the airplane, which was accepted and put into production the following year. The Sea Fury was produced in two basic versions, the F.10 and the FB. 11 (in the drawings), and a trainer version, the T.20. In the units of the Fleet Air Arm, it was also successfully exported, serving in Canada, Australia, Egypt, Holland, Pakistan, Morocco, Iraq, West Germany, Burma and Cuba.


Supermarine Attacker 

Swift FR. Mk 5: designed by Supermarine team that had cut its teeth on the Spitfire and the Attacker, the Swift had a problematic development which was matched by an unfulfilled service life. The prototype 541 Swift was deficient in many respects and spring-tab ailerons prohibited supersonic dives. Later geared-tab surfaces made transonic flight possible but control was poor about all axes and dangerous above 25,000 feet.. The unsuitability of the Mk 1 and 2 as interceptor aircraft led to a decision to concentrate on development of the Swift as a tactical reconnaissance aircraft. Sixty two FR Mk 5 were subsequently produced with lengthened nose to accommodate three cameras, a frameless canopy, and modified wing.

Specimen 3

North American F-86 F Sabre: the F-86F was basically an uprated version of the F-84E, which had introduced the powered all flying tailplane and slatted wing. The F-86F had further refinements, such as an extended leading edge, increased chord and a small wing fence. Both aircraft saw extensive service in the Vietnam conflict. The first Sabre units in Korea with the earlier ‘A’ model; the ‘F’ began to arrive in theatre in early 1953. The aircraft was flown brilliantly against the MiG-15. Despite having marginally inferior performance to the Russian aircraft, the disparity was more than matched by7 the superior training and experience of American pilots. Total production of the F-86F totaled 1,079; from 1954 many were delivered to America’s allies under the Military Aid Program.


Canadair Sabre Mk 4, F-86E: also built by the Canadair Company (430), The aircraft was later fitted with extended leading edges and passed to Italy (180). Yugoslavia, Greece and Turkey also took some. Canadair-built Sabre Mk 5 and Mk 6 were powered by license built Orenda turbojet. The Mk 4 had the original General Electric engine. In all other respects the Mk 4 was the same as the F-86E, including the ‘all flying tail’.

Courtesy: The Great Book of Combat Aircraft by Paolo Matricardi & Published by VMB Vercelli, Italy 2006; Attack & Interceptor Jets by Michael Sharpe, Prospero Books, London ON., 1999

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  • AFRICA (Nairobi, Dar-es-Salaam, Kano)
  • FAR EAST (Singapore, Hong Kong, Beijing, Tokyo)

 LEGEND: AUH = Abu Dhabi; ADE = Aden; AMM = Amman; AMS = Amsterdam (Schipol); ANK = Ankara; ATH = Athens; BAH= Bahrain; BOS = Boston (Logan); BGW = Baghdad; BEY = Beirut; BKK = Bangkok; BOM = Bombay; CAI = Cairo; CPH = Copenhagen; CMB = Colombo; DAC = Dhaka; DAR= Dar-es Salaam; DXB = Dubai; DOH = Doha; DHA = Dhahran; DAM = Damascus; DEL = New Delhi;  FRA = Frankfurt (Rheine Main); FCO = Fiumicino (Rome);YHZ = Halifax; HKG = Hong Kong; IST = Istanbul (Yesilkoy); JED = Jeddah; JFK = New York; KTM = Kathmandu; KHI = Karachi; KWI = Kuwait; KUL = Kuala Lumpur; LHE= Lahore; LON = Heathrow (London); MCT = Muscat; NBO = Nairobi; PEW = Peshawar; PAR = Paris (Orly); PEK = Beijing; RWP = Rawalpindi/Islamabad; THR = Tehran (Mehrabad); TIP = Tripoli; SAH = Sana; SHJ= Sharjah; SIN = Singapore; SWF = Stewart (New York); Haneda= Tokyo (HAN); NRT = Tokyo (NRT);  ZAH = Zahedan; ZRH = Zurich.

RC= Route Check; RF = Route Familiarization

  • AP-AXK, AP-AXM, AP-AXL, AP-ATQ are B720s
  • AP-AYW, AP-AYV, AP-BAT, AP-BAK are B747s


  • 5/3/74, AP-AXG, Akmal, KHI-MCT-DXB-KHI
  • 12/3/74, AP-ATQ, Ishaq, KHI-MCT-KHI
  • 18/3/74, AP-AXA, Israr, KHI-JED-NBO (flight plan left in restaurant at JED)
  • 22/3/74, AP-AWZ, Israr, NBO-ADE-KHI
  • 28/3/74, AP-AWV, A. Hussain, KHI-AUH-DHA-KHI
  • 11/4/74, AP-AXG, Israr, KHI-DHA-AUH-KHI
  • 16/4/74, AP-AWU, Ishaq, KHI-CMB-KUL-SIN, PK 770
  • 18/4/74, AP-AWZ, Ishaq, SIN-KUL-CMB-KHI, PK 773, (Extensive weather encountered)
  • 25/4/74, AP-AWV, Salim-uL-Huk, KHI-RWP-PEK, PK 750
  • 26/4/74, AP-AWV, Salim uL-Huk, PEK-RWP-KHI, PK 753
  • 9/5/74, AP-AWV, Afzal, KHI-AUH-KHI
  • 26/5/74, AP-AWU, Hashmi, KHI-RWP-PEK (captain called to ATC at Beijing for air corridor violation)
  • 27/5/74, AP-AWU, Hashmi, PEK-RWP
  • 1/6/74, AP-AWU, Riaz Khokhar, KHI-AUH-DXB-KHI
  • 15/6/74, AP-AXA, Omair, KHI-ADE-NBO-DAR-NBO (African dance festival at the airport in honour of visiting Kenneth Kaunda).
  • 18/6/74, AP-AXA, Omair, NBO-JED-KHI
  • 20/6/74, AP-AWV, Hameed Malik, KHI-CMB-KUL-SIN, PK 772 (RC of Capt. Hasan Zaheer)
  • 25/6/74, AP-AXG, Hameed Malik, SIN-CMB-KHI, PK 771 (captain gives me landing at KHI. I bounce)
  • 28/6/74, AP-AXG, Mir, KHI-DOH-BAH-KHI
  • 11/7/74, AP-AXA, A. Hussain, KHI-DXB-KHI (VVIP Flight Sheikh of Abu Dhabi)
  • 25/7/74, AP-AWZ, Mir, KHI-DHA-KWI-DHA-KHI
  • 29/7/74, AP-AWY, Kamal, KHI-AUH-DXB-KHI
  • 5/8/74 AP-AXA, M. Salim, KHI-AUH-DXB-KHI
  • 8/8/74, AP-AWZ, Israr, KHI-CMB-KUL
  • 13/8/74, AP-AXA, Israr, KUL-SIN-KUL (Capt. Mian Fazle Ghani + F/O Hasan Jafri, other crew at KUL)
  • 15/8/74, AP-AXA, Israr, KUL-KHI (captain overflew CMB due weather)
  • 12/9/74, AP-AWV, Sadiq Ali, KHI-DHA-KWI-KHI
  • 16/9/74, AP-ATQ, M.I. Younus, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 10/10/74, AP-AWV, Sharif, KHI-RWP-PEK (AH Philippa Fernandez, FE Inam (died of heart attack in London shortly while jogging after a night out)
  • 11/10/74, AP-AWV, Sharif, PEK-RWP,
  • 14/10/74, AP-AXM, Mir, KHI-AUH-DXB-KHI
  • 17/10/74, AP-AXG, Imam, KHI-DXB-KHI
  • 21/10/74, Mir, AP-AXK, KHI-JED-NBO (FE Rafay)
  • 26/10/74, Mir AP-AXL NBO-ADE-KHI
  • 20/1/75, AP-AUR, Fokker F-27, T.H. Naqvi, KHI-DXB-KWI-BEY (Ferry)
  • 22/1/75, AP-AUR, Fokker F-27, T.H. Naqvi, BEY-ATH-TIP
  • 23/1/75, AP-ATU, Fokker F-27, T.H. Naqvi, TIP-ATH-BEY (Ferry)
  • 25/1/75, AP-ATU, Fokker F-27, T.H. Naqvi, BEY-BAH-KHI
  • 15/5/76, AP-AXG, Banfield, KHI-BAH-KHI
  • 22/5/76, AP-AWY, Haqqi, KHI-IST (P2 European RF, Capt. Riaz Khokhar on RF after operation)
  • 25/5/76, AP-AWU, Haqqi, IST-AMS-LON
  • 29/5/76, AP-AXG, Haqqi, LON-AMS-DAM
  • 29/5/76, AP-AXG, Gingles, DAM-DXB-KHI
  • 3/6/76, AP-AXL, Ashfaq Hussain, KHI-DHA-KHI
  • 11/6/76, AP-AWV, Zaman, LHE-DXB-LHE
  • 22/6/76, AP-AXA, Fida, KHI-DOH-KHI
  • 27/6/76, AP-AXK, Williams, KHI-DHA-KHI
  • 5/7/76, AP-AWV, Gingles, DAM-AUH-KHI
  • 12/7/76, AP-AWU, Akmal, RWP-THR-IST
  • 14/7/76, AP-AXG, Akmal, IST-FCO-IST (Capt. J.Sadiq , other crew at Hotel)
  • 15/7/76, AP-AWU, Akmal, IST-RWP
  • 20/7/76, AP-AXG, Ashfaq Hussain, KHI-MCT-KHI
  • 24/7/76, AP-AWY, Shuja, KHI-IST (European P2 RC)
  • 27/7/76, AP-AXG, Shuja, IST-AMS-LON (captain sick with flu in London)
  • 30/7/76, AP-AXG, Shuja, LON-AMS-DAM
  • 31/7/76, AP-AWU, Shuja, DAM-RWP (Rain at RWP. Aircraft stopped by captain at end of runway).
  • 2/8/76, AP-AXG, N. Chughtai, RWP-DXB-KHI
  • 6/8/76, AP-AWU, Riaz Khokhar, RWP-DAM
  • 8/7/76, AP-AXA, Riaz Khokhar, DAM-ATH-CPH
  • 14/7/76, AP-AXG, Riaz Khokhar, CPH-FCO-ATH-DAM
  • 16/7/76, AP-AWZ, Riaz Khokhar, DAM-AUH-KHI (First Officer Mazhar Ahmad on board ex-AUH as Supernumerary)
  • 19/8/76, AP-AWZ, Mushtaq Cheema, KHI-PEK, PK 750
  • 23/8/76, AP-AXG, Mushtaq Cheema, PEK-HAN (Tokyo), PK 752 (Tokyo Slip)
  • 27/8/76, AP-AWU, Mushtaq Cheema, HAN (Tokyo)-PEK, PK 753
  • 30/8/76, AP-AWZ, Mushtaq Cheema, PEK-RWP Pk 751 (captain smooches girl in cockpit)
  • 12/9/76, AP-AXL, Shaukat Ali, KHI-KWI-KHI

     Ali Baba born Sept 21

  • 22/9/76, AP-AWU, Maqsood, KHI-DXB-DHA-DAM (F/E Imaad, Captain made an undershooting approach at DAM, FE cautions me)
  • 24/9/76, AP-AWU, Maqsood, DAM-AMS-LON
  • 28/9/76, AP-AWZ, Easton, LON-DAM
  • 29/9/76, AP-AWU, Easton, DAM-KHI
  • 11/10/76, AP-ATQ, Ashfaq Hussain, KHI-DXB-RWP
  • 22/10/76, AP-ATQ, Shafiq, KHI-JED-NBO (captain called up by ATC for hold over GG beacon)
  • 25/10/76, AP-AXK, Shafiq, NBO-JED-KHI
  • 27/10/76, AP-AXA, Hamid Hussain, KHI-BGW-IST
  • 7/11/76, AP-AXL, Kamal, KHI-DHA-KHI
  • 19/11/76, AP-AXL, Ashfaq Hussain, KHI-UET-ZAH-UET-KHI
  • 23/11/76, AP-AXG, Maqsood, KHI-CMB-KUL-SIN
  • 25/11/76, AP-AWU, Maqsood, SIN-KUL-KHI (extensive weather near CMB, captain overflew CMB)
  • 28/11/76, AP-AWZ, Mahfooz, KHI-AUH-KHI
  • 1/12/76, AP-AXG, Raqeeb, KHI-BGW-IST, PK 707
  • 2/12/76, AP-AXG, Raqeeb, IST-AMS-CPH
  • 3/12/76, AP-AXK, Raqeeb, CPH-FCO-ATH-DAM (Palestinian sentry challenges us near Meridien Hotel)
  • 5/12/76, AP-AWU, Raqeeb, DAM-AUH-KHI
  • 9/12/76, AP-AXG, Ghias, KHI-CMB-KUL-SIN (FE Shafqat)
  • 11/12/76, AP-AWY, Ghias, HKG-KUL-KHI
  • 19/12/76, AP-AXG, Mushtaq Cheema, KHI-RWP-PEK
  • 23/12/76, AP-AXG, Mushtaq Cheema, PEK-HAN (Tokyo)
  • 27/12/76, AP-AXG, Mushtaq Cheema, HAN (Tokyo)-PEK
  • 31/12/76, AP-AXG, Mushtaq Cheema, PEK-RWP
  • 9/1/77, AP-AXL, M.I. Younus, KHI-KWI-KHI
  • 18/1/77, AP-AWY, Azmat, PAR-JFK— Capt. E. Rabbani’s RF
  • 29/1/77, AP-AXG, Shahab, KHI-BOM-KHI
  • 31/1/77, AP-ATQ, Shuja, RWP-DXB-RWP-KHI
  • 14/2/77, AP-AWY, Blake, JFK-PAR (supy to LON)
  • 18/2/77, AP-AXG, Blake, LON-AMS
  • 19/2/77, AP-AXG, Blake, AMS-DAM
  • 20/2/77, AP-AXK, Blake, DAM-RWP


  • 13/4/77, AP-AYV, Ashfaq, DXB-FRA
  • 14/4/77, AP-AYV, Fazil, FRA-DXB
  • 29/4/77, AP-AYW, Salehjee, KHI-DXB-CAI
  • 1/5/77, AP-AYW, Salehjee, CAI-DXB-KHI
  • 6/5/77, AP-AYW, Ashfaq, KHI-RWP-THR
  • 8/5/77, AP-AYW, Ashfaq, THR-LON
  • 12/5/77, AP-AYW, Ashfaq, LON-PAR (I duck as lightning bolt seen coming in on takeoff in clear weather)
  • 14/5/77, AP-AYW, Ashfaq, PAR-JFK (aurora borealis observed over Atlantic)
  • 18/5/77, AP-AYW, Ashfaq, JFK-PAR
  • 19/5/77, AP-AYV, Ashfaq, PAR-FRA-DXB
  • 20/5/77 AP-AYW, Khusro, DXB-KHI
  • 28/5/77, AP-AYV, K.R. Khan, KHI-DXB-CAI
  • 29/5/77, AP-AYW, Ashfaq, CAI-DXB-KHI
  • 8/6/77, AP-AYW, Anwar Khan, DXB-FRA-PAR
  • 9/5/77, AP-AYW, Anwar Khan, FRA-DXB
  • 10/5/77, AP-AYW, Mobin, DXB-KHI
  • 25/6/77, AP-AYW, Anwar Khan, PAR-YHZ (unscheduled landing due fire warning)
  • 26/6/77, AP-AYW, Anwar Khan, YHZ-JFK (Canarsie Approach Runway 13)
  • 3/7/77, AP-AYW, Anwar Khan, JFK-PAR

 5/7/77 Air France (CDG)- JFK) -baggage searched by customs at JFK. Supernumerary travel.

  • 6/7/77, AP-AYW, Aziz, JFK-PAR
  • 7/7/77, AP-AYV, Ashfaq, PAR-FRA-DXB
  • 8/7/77, AP-AP-AYV, Chaudhry, DXB-KHI
  • 17/7/77, AP-AYV, K.R. Khan, RWP-THR
  • 18/7/77, AP-AYV, K.R. Khan, THR-RWP-KHI
  • 2/8/77, AP-AYW, K.R. Khan, PAR-JFK
  • 7/8/77, AP-YW, K.R. Khan, JFK-PAR
  • 10/8/77, AP-AYW, Naqvi, PAR-JFK (standby pickup at Paris Hilton. First Officer Ali Sain drunk)
  • 14/8/77, AP-AYV, Naqvi, JFK-PAR
  • 17/8/77, AP-AYW, Siraj, PAR-FRA-CAI (supy to Karachi)
  • 24/9/77, AP-AYV, K.R. Khan, LON-RWP
  • 7/10/77, AP-AYW, Naqvi, KHI-DXB-CAI
  • 27/10/77, AP-AYV, Chaudhry, DXB-FRA
  • 29/10/77, AP-AYW, K.R. Khan, FRA-KHI
  • 9/11/77, AP-AYW, Mobin, FRA-PAR-LON
  • 12/11/77, AP-AP-AYV, K.R. Khan, LON-RWP
  • 9/12/77, AP-AYV, Rahim, KHI-RWP-THR
  • 11/12/77, AP-AYV, Rahim, THR-LON
  • 15/12/77, AP-AYW, Rahim, LON-PAR-FRA (Gear not going up after takeoff from Paris. Aircraft flown with gear down. FE Dabbir Ali Syed)
  • 6/1/78, AP-AYV, K.R. Khan, THR-LON
  • 8/1/78, AP-AYV, K.R. Khan, LON-THR
  • 25/1/78, AP-AYW, Shah, DXB-FRA-PAR
  • 26/1/78, AP-AYW, Shah, FRA-DXB
  • 29/1/78, AP-AYW, Chaudhry RWP-THR
  • 30/1/78, AP-AYW, Chaudhry, THR-RWP-KHI
  • 8/2/78, AP-AYW, Shaukat, DXB-FRA (Saleem Lodhia approaches Captain with some problem at Hotel)
  • 9/2/78, AP-AYW, Shaukat, FRA-DXB
  • 25/2/78, AP-AYV, Shah, THR-LON
  • 26/2/78, AP-AYV, Shah, LON-THR
  • 3/3/78, AP-AYV, Khusro, KHI-RWP-THR
  • 6/3/78, AP-AYV, Khusro, THR-LON
  • 8/3/78, AP-AYW, Khusro, LON-PAR-FRA (holding at Paris (Orly)
  • 19/3/78, AP-AYW, Khusro, RWP-THR
  • 20/3/78, AP-AYW, Khusro, THR-RWP-KHI
  • 2/4/78, AP-AYV, Salehjee, RWP-THR
  • 22/4/78, AP-AYV, Aziz, THR-LON
  • 23/4/78, AP-AYV, Aziz, LON-DXB
  • 25/4/78, AP-AYV, Aziz, DXB-KHI
  • 12/5/78, AP-AYV, Naqvi, KHI-RWP-THR (Extensive weather encountered between Nawabshah and Rahim Yar Khan)
  • 14/5/78, AP-AYV, Naqvi, THR-LON
  • 18/5/78, AP-AYV, Naqvi, LON-PAR-FRA
  • 28/6/78, AP-AYW, Fazil, DXB-FRA
  • 29/6/78, AP-AYW, Fazil, FRA-DXB
  • 30/6/78, AP-AYW, Siraj, DXB-KHI
  • 14/7/78, AP-AYV, Naqvi, KHI-RWP-THR (MrsNaqvi on board for pattern. FE Patel)
  • 20/7/78, AP-AYW, Naqvi, LON-PAR-FRA
  • 17/9/78, AP-AYV, Siraj, LON-RWP
  • 19/9/78, APAYV, Chaudhry, KHI-RWP
  • 23/9/78, AP-AYW, Siraj, RWP-THR-LON (Maruf on board)
  • 25/9/78, AP-AYV, Siraj, LON-KHI (7 hours/40 minutes)
  • 1/10/78, AP-AYW, K.R. Khan, RWP-THR
  • 6/10/78, AP-AYV,, K.R. Khan, THR-KHI
  • 8/11/78, AP-AYV, Aziz, DXB-FRA
  • 10/11/78, AP-AYV, Aziz, FRA-THR-RWP
  • 11/11/78, AP-AYW, Siraj, RWP-THR-LON
  • 12/11/78, AP-AYW, Siraj, LON-DXB
  • 15/11/78, AP-AYV, Siraj, DXB-JED-KHI
  • 14/12/78, AP-AY, Fazil, LON-PAR-FRA
  • 23/12/78, AP-AYV, Raja, RWP-THR-LON
  • 24/12/78, Ap-AYV, Raja, RWP-LON-DXB
  • 31/12/78, AP-AYV, Khalid, KHI-FRA
  • 3/1/79, AP-AYW, Khalid, FRA-PAR-LON
  • 6/1/79 AP-AYV, Khalid, LON-RWP (8 hours, 45 minutes)
  • 21/1/79, AP-AYW, Rahim, KHI-LON (9 hours, 6 minutes)
  • 25/1/79, AP-AYW, Rahim RWP-THR-LON-FRA
  • 28/1/79, AP-AYW, Rahim, FRA-LON
  • 17/2/79, AP-AYW, K.R. Khan, RWP-KHI-LON (Shahla on board for sector RWP-KHI)
  • 18/2/79, AP-AYW, K.R. Khan, LON-DXB
  • 19/2/79, AP-AYW, Chaudhry, DXB-KHI
  • 27/2/79, AP-AYV, Akbar, KHI-RWP-THR-KHI
  • 10/3/79, AP-AYV, K.R. Khan, RWP-KHI-LON
  • 11/3/79, AP-AYV, K.R. Khan, LON-DXB
  • 10/4/79, AP-AYV, Fazil, KHI-RWP-DXB
  • 11/4/79, AP-AYV, Fazil, DXB-FRA
  • 12/4/79, AP-AYV, Fazil, FRA-THR-KHI
  • 20/4/79, AP-AYV, Raja, RWP-THR
  • 21/4/79, AP-AYV, Raja, THR-LON
  • 29/4/79, AP-AYW, Shaukat, LON-RWP (8 hours, 5 minutes)
  • 18/5/79, AP-AYW, Naqvi, RWP-THR
  • 19/5/79, AP-AYW, Naqvi, THR-LON
  • 20/5/79, AP-AYV, Naqvi, LON-DXB
  • 21/5/79AP-AYV, Salehjee, DXB-KHI
  • 3/6/79, AP-AYV, Chaudhry/Raja, LON-RWP
  • 21/6/79, AP-AYV, Salehjee, DXB-FRA
  • 22/6/79, AP-AYV, Salehjee FRA-THR
  • 23/6/79, AP-AYV, Salehjee, THR-KHI
  • 1/7/79, AP-AYV, Bashir/Raja, RWP-THR-FRA-LON
  • 5/7/79, AP-AYV, Bashir, LON-PAR-FRA
  • 8/7/79, AP-AYW, Bashir, FRA-LON
  • 18/7/79, AP-AYW, Saeed Akhtar, KHI-DXB
  • 18/7/79, AP-AYW, Khalid, DXB-FRA
  • 19/7/79, AP-AYW, Khalid, FRA-THR
  • 20/7/79, AP-AYW, Khalid, THR-KHI
  • 5/8/79, AP-BAK, Zaki, KHI-FRA
  • 9/8/79, AP-AYW, Zaki, FRA-PAR-LON (captain requests air hostess for company at Heathrow but is turned down)
  • 11/8/79, AP-AYW, Zaki, LON-RWP
  • 12/8/79, AP-AYW, Zaki, RWP-KHI
  • 16/8/79, AP-BAK, Bashir, FRA-PAR-LON
  • 18/8/79, AP-BAK, Bashir, LON-RWP
  • 22/8/79, AP-AYW, Frazer, DXB-FRA
  • 23/8/79, AP-AYW, Frazer, FRA-THR (fifth pod takeoff, FE Naseem. captain briefs us in hotel night before)
  • 24/8/79, AP-AYW, Frazer, THR-KHI
  • 2/9/79, AP-BAK, Ishaq, LON-RWP (9 hours, 14 minutes)
  • 14/9/79, APAYV, Nasir, RWP-THR
  • 15/9/79, AP-AYV, Nasir, THR-LON
  • 16/9/79, AP-AYV, Nasir, LON-DXB
  • 18/9/79, AP-BAK, Nasir, DXB-RWP
  • 30/9/79, AP-AYW, Mian, RWP-THR
  • 1/10/79/AP-AYW, Mian, THR-LON
  • 6/10/79, AP-AYW, Afaq, LON-RWP (Gen. A.M. Yahya Khan on board on stretcher)
  • 28/11/79, AP-AYV, Khalid, DXB-FRA
  • 2/12/79, AP-AYV, Khalid, FRA-LON
  • 5/1279, AP-AYW, Salim, KHI-JED (night stop due weather, crew time?)
  • 6/12/79, AP-AYW, Salim, JED-KHI
  • 7/12/79, AP-BAK, Chaudhry, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 9/12/79, AP-BAK, Chaudhry, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 11/12/79, AP-AYW, Khalid, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 14/12/79, AP-AYW, Mian, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 15/12/79, AP-BAK, Shaukat, KHI-BOM-KHI
  • 20/12/79, AP-AYW, Shah, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 24/12/79, AP-AYV, Naqvi, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 28/12/79, AP-BAK, Siraj, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 31/12/79, AP-AYV, Bashir, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 2/1/80, AP-AYW, Bashir, KHI-DHA-KHI
  • 4/1/80, AP-AYW, Saeed Akhtar, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 6/1/80, AP-AYV, K.R. Khan, KHI-RWP-KHI
  • 7/1/80, AP_BAK, Mobin, RWP-KHI
  • 9/1/80, AP-AYV, Mian, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 10/1/80, AP-AYV, Khalid, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 14/1/80, AP-AYW, Mahmood, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 16/1/80, AP-BAK, Siraj, KHI-RWP-KHI
  • 21/1/80, AP-BAK, Zaki, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 23/1/80, AP-AYW, Mahmood, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 25/1/80, AP-BAK, Akbar, KHI-RWP-DXB
  • 26/1/80, AP-BAK, Akbar, DXB-AUH-RWP-KHI
  • 28/1/80, AP-AYW, Mobin, KHI-DHA-KHI
  • 29/1/80, AP-AYV, Akbar, KHI-RWP-KHI
  • 31/1/80, AP-AYV, Mobin, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 12/2/80, AP-AYW, Ahmed Ali, KHI-RWP-KHI
  • 13/2/80, AP-AYW, Bashir, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 18/2/80, AP-BAK, Salimul Haq, KHI-DHA-KHI
  • 20/2/80, AP-BAK, Zaki, KHI-RWP-KHI
  • 21/2/80, AP-BAK, Khalid, KHI-RWP-DXB
  • 22/2/80, AP-BAK, Khalid, DXB-AUH-RWP-KHI
  • 23/2/80, AP-BAK, Mahmood, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 26/2/80, AP-AYW, Nasir, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 6/3/80, AP-BAK, Chaudhry, KHI-RWP-DXB
  • 7/3/80, AP-BAK, Chaudhry, DXB-AUH-RWP-KHI
  • 15/03/80, AP-AYV, Shaukat, KHI-RWP-KHI
  • 16/03/80, AP-AYV, Akbar, KHI-RWP-KHI
  • 18/4/80, AP-AP-AYV, Mian, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 20/3/80, AP-AYW, Mahmood, KHI-DHA-KHI
  • 23/3/80, AP-BAT, Afaq, KHI-BKK-KHI
  • 26/3/80, AP-BAK, Fazil, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 30/3/80, AP-AP-BAK, Ishaq, KHI-RWP-KHI
  • 31/3/80AP-BAT, Hameed Malik, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 8/4/80, AP-BAT, Salim, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 12/4/80, AP-BAT, Raja, KHI-RWP-KHI


  • 22/4/80, AP-AZP, Najam, KHI-CMB-KHI
  • 24/4/80, AP-AWU, Zia,, KHI-BOM-KHI (Capt Khalid Iqbal is P1 under supervision)
  • 29/4/80, AP-ATQ, Lodhi, KHI-DAC-KHI
  • 8/5/80, AP-AZW, Teherany, KHI-IST-LON
  • 12/5/80, AP-AXG, Teherany, LON-AMS-DAM
  • 14/5/80, AP-AWY, Teherany, DAM-AMS
  • 16/5/80, AP-AWY, Teherany, AMS-FRA-ZRH-IST
  • 19/5/80, AP-AXG, Teherany, IST-LON
  • 26/5/80, AP-AWY, Hamid Hussain, KHI-ATH
  • 28/5/80, AP-AWU, Hamid Hussain, ATH-FCO-ATH-DAM
  • 31/5/80, AP-AXM, Hamid Hussain, DAM-DXB-KHI
  • 2/6/80, AP-BAF, Raonaq, KHI-MCT-BAH-KHI (Nayyer Nazir on board for P2 R/F)
  • 4/6/80, AP-AWU, M. Zubair, KHI-BGW-KHI
  • 6/6/80, AP-AZP, Luther, KHI-BOM-KHI
  • 8/6/80, AP-AXK, Rabbani, KHI-DXB-NBO
  • 12/6/80, AP-AXK, Rabbani, NBO-DXB-KHI
  • 15/6/80, AP-AWY, Akbar Afridi, HKG-DAC-KHI
  • 17/6/80, AP-AZP, Zia, KHI-BOM-KHI
  • 18/6/80, AP-AZP, Sheikh Rashid, KHI-CMB-KHI
  • 24/6/80, AP-AXA, Teherany, KHI-CMB-KHI

    Aminah born July 27

  • 31/7/80, AP-BAA, S. Quraishi, KHI-MCT (initial route command check P1 u/s, technical-night stop, landing gear right strut oil leakage)
  • 1/8/80, AP-BAA, S. Quraishi, MCT-KHI (VOR Let Down at KHI)
  • 2/8/80, AP-ATQ, Ejaz uL Haq, RWP-IST
  • 3/8/80, AP-ATQ, Ejaz uL Haq, IST-RWP-KHI
  • 15/8/80, AP-ATQ, S.Quraishi, KHI-JED-KHI (P1 under supervision)
  • 21/8/80, AP-AXL, Najam, KHI-CMB-KHI-  (P1 under supervision)
  • 26/8/80, AP-ATQ, Najam, KHI-CMB-KHI (P1 under supervision)
  • 2/9/80, AP-ATQ, Ejaz uL Haq, RWP-IST (P1 under supervision)
  • 3/9/80, AP-ATQ, Ejaz uL Haq, IST-RWP-KHI (P1 under supervision)
  • 16/9/80, AP-ATQ, Dara, KHI-BOM-KHI (Final Route Command Check, radar vectoring at BOM)
  • 26/9/80, AP-BAF, Self, KHI-DHA-KHI
  • 27/9/80, AP-AXL, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI
  • 5/10/80, AP-AXL, T. R. Mir, KHI-KWI-KHI (RF)
  • 7/10/80, AP-ATQ, Sami, KHI-KUL-SIN
  • 9/10/80, AP-AXM, Sami, SIN-KHI
  • 16/10/80, AP-AXK, Self, KHI-MCT-KHI
  • 21/10/80, AP-ATQ, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI
  • 30/10/80, AP-BAF, Self, KHI-AUH-KHI
  • 5/11/80, AP-AXL, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI
  • 10/12/80, AP-AXL, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI
  • 19/12/80, AP-AZP, Self, KHI-DAC-KHI
  • 23/12/80, AP-AXK, Self, KHI-CMB-KHI
  • 26/12/80, AP-BAF, Self, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 1/1/81, AP-AXM, Self, KHI-BAH-KHI
  • 9/1/81, AP-AZP, Self, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 17/1/81, AP-ATQ, Self, KHI-MCT-BAH-MCT-KHI
  • 20/1/81, AP-ATQ, Self, KHI-CMB-KHI
  • 28/1/81, AP-AZP, Self, KHI-MCT-KHI
  • 29/1/81, AP-AXM, Suri, KHI-DXB-NBO, PK 744 RF
  • 1/2/81, AP-AXL, Suri, NBO-DXB-KHI, PK 745
  • 8/2/81, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 14/2/81, AP-AZW, Self, KHI-MCT-BAH-MCT-KHI
  • 15/2/81, AP-AXK, Junaidi, KHI-DXB-NBO, PK743, RC
  • 19/2/81, AP-ATQ, Junaidi, NBO-DXB-KHI, PK746
  • 2/4/81, AP-AXM, Self, KHI-DXB-NBO, (Self = Author)
  • 6/4/81, AP-AXK, Self, NBO-DXB-KHI
  • 18/4/81, AP-BAA, Mansoor E. Khan, KHI-RWP-PEK, PK 752 RF
  • 23/4/81, AP-AXG, Mansoor E. Khan, PEK-TYO (NRT)
  • 27/4/81, AP-BAA, Mansoor E. Khan, TYO-PEK
  • 1/5/81, AP-AZW, Mansoor E. Khan, PEK-RWP-KHI
  • 6/5/81, AP-AZP, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI
  • 8/5/81, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-DHA-KHI
  • 10/5/81, AP-AXK, Self, KHI-MCT-KHI
  • 19/5/81, AP-AZP, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI
  • 21/5/81, AP-AXG, Osman Khan, KHI-PEK, PK 750, RC
  • 24/5/81, AP-AZW, Osman Khan, PEK-TYO PK 752
  • 29/5/81, AP-BAA, Osman Khan, TYO (NRT)-PEK, PK 753
  • 1/6/81, AP-AZW, Osman Khan, PEK-RWP-KHI, PK 753, RC
  • 6/6/81, AP-AXK, Self, KHI-BAH-KHI
  • 9/6/81, AP-AWY, Iftekhar, KHI-DAM (European P1 RF)
  • 12/6/81, AP-AWU, Iftekhar, DAM-AMS
  • 13/6/81, AP-AXG, Iftekhar, AMS-LOM-AMS
  • 16/6/81, AP-AXM, Iftekhar, AMS-DAM
  • 23/6/81, AP_AXL, Iftekhar, DAM-DXB-KHI
  • 27/6/81, AP-AXA, Self, CAI-KHI, PK 806
  • 30/6/81, AP-AXM, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI
  • 1/7/81, AP-AWU, Aqeel, KHI-DAM (P1 European Clearance RC)
  • 3/7/81, AP-AWY, Aqeel, DAM-AMS
  • 4/7/81, AP-AXG, Aqeel, AMS-LON-AMS-
  • 6/7/81, AP-AWU, Aqeel, AMS-DAM-
  • 11/7/81, AP-AXK, Aqeel, DAM-RWP-
  • 28/7/81, AP-AXM, Self, KHI-AUH-KHI
  • 3/8/81, AP-AXL, Self, KHI-DXB-DAM (First Officer Nayyar Nazir, Scheduling Officer Shafiq as Russian Interpreter on board)
  • 5/8/81, AP-AWY, Self, DAM-AMS
  • 8/8/81, AP-AZW, Self, AMS-DAM
  • 13/8/81, AP-AWY, Self, DAM-DXB-KHI
  • 19/8/81, AP-AXL, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI
  • 21/8/81, AP-AXM, Self, KHI-MCT-KHI
  • 25/8/81, AP-AXL, Self, KHI-JED
  • 3/9/81, AP-AWY, Self, KHI-DAM
  • 6/9/81, AP-AWU, Self, DAM-FRA
  • 8/9/81, AP-AWU, Self, FRA-PAR
  • 16/9/81, AP-AXM, Self, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 26/9/81, AP-AZP, Self, KHI-DXB-KHI
  • 29/9/81, AP-AXL, Self, KHI-AUH-KHI
  • 10/10/81, AP-AXM, Self, KHI-DAM
  • 11/10/81, AP-AXM, Self, DAM-FRA
  • 12/10/81, AP-AXM, Self, FRA-CAI-DXB
  • 18/10/81, AP-AXG, Self, KHI-BKK-KHI (radar vectoring at BKK)
  • 26/10/81, AP-AXL, Iftekhar, DXB-DAM-AMS
  • 30/10/81, AP-AWY, Iftekhar, FRA-JFK PK 801 (North America RF)
  • 2/11/81, AP-AWU, Iftekhar, JFK-FRA, PK 802
  • 12/11/81, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-MCT-KHI
  • 20/11/81, AP-AWY, Self, CAI-AUH-KHI (First Officer Pervaiz Jung, Met FE Arif Rabbani at Oberoi Hotel)
  • 26/11/81, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-BAH-KHI
  • 28/11/81, AP-AWY, S. Quraishi, KHI-DAM
  • 30/11/81, AP-AZW, S. Quraishi, DAM-LON (Overshoot given by radar at Heathrow. 
  • 4/12/81, AP-AWU, S.Quraishi, FRA-JFK (P1 RC North American Clearance)
  • 7/12/81, AP-AWY, S. Quraishi, JFK-FRA RC
  • 19/12/81, AP-AWY, Self, KHI-DAM
  • 21/12/81, AP-BAA, Self, DAM-DXB-KHI
  • 2/1/82, AP-AWY, Self, CAI-AUH-KHI
  • 5/1/82, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-CMB-KHI
  • 12/1/82, AP-ATQ, Self, KHI-CMB-KHI
  • 28/1/82, AP-AWY, Self, KHI-ATH
  • 2/2/82, AP-AWY, Self, ATH-FRA-PAR
  • 15/2/82, AP-AWY, Self, KHI-ATH
  • 17/2/82, AP-AXG, Self,ATH-DAM
  • 19/2/82, AP-AZW, Self, DAM-AMS-LON
  • 22/2/82, AP-AXG, Self, LON-AMS-DAM (engine surge in letdown at DAM)
  • 24/2/82, AP-AZW, Self, DAM-ATH-FCO-ATH
  • 26/2/82, AP-AWU, Self, ATH-FRA
  • 27/2/82, AP-AWU, Self, FRA-CAI
  • 1/3/82, AP-AWY, Self, CAI-KHI
  • 9/3/82, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-CMB-KHI
  • 21/3/82, AP-AWY, Self, PAR (Orly)-BOS, PK 801 (diversion to Boston due weather, First Officer Asif Akhtar, FE Mahmood)
  • 22/3/82, AP-AWY, Self, BOS-JFK
  • 27/3/82, APAWU, Self, JFK-PAR PK 806
  • 29/3/82, AP-AWY, Self, FRA-CAI PK 802 (First Officer Asif Akhtar makes a hard landing. FE Mahmood)
  • 3/4/82, AP-AZW, Self, KHI-RWP-PEK, PK 752
  • 8/4/82, AP-AXA, Self, PEK-TYO (NRT) PK 750
  • 9/4/82, AP-AXA, Self, TYO-PEK, PK 751
  • 12/4/82, AP-AXA, Self, PEK-KHI, PK 753
  • 25/4/82, AP-AXM, Self, KHI-DXB-NBO, PK 743
  • 30/4/82, AP-AXM, Self, NBO-DXB-KHI, PK 746
  • 5/5/82, AP-AWY, Iftekhar, KHI-RWP-HKG, RF, PK 004 (weather encountered near Hong Kong, First Officer Khalid Zareef)
  • 15/5/82, AP-AWY, Iftekhar, HKG-KHI, PK 003 RF
  • 19/5/82, AP-AXM, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI
  • 30/5/82, AP-AZW, Self, KHI-BKK-KHI
  • 2/6/82, AP-ATQ, Self, KHI-DXB-IST, PK 310/709
  • 6/6/82, AP-AWY, Self, IST-FRA-PAR, PK 801
  • 7/6/82, AP-AWU, Self, PAR-DAM, PK 808
  • 11/6/82, Self, AP-AZW, DAM-KHI, PK 710
  • 15/6/82, AP-BAA, Junaidi, KHI-KUL-SIN, PK 770, RF
  • 17/6/82, AP-AZW, Junaidi, SIN-KHI, PK 773, RF
  • 24/6/82, AP-AZW, Self, KHI-MCT-KHI
  • 7/7/82, AP-AXL, J.M. Quraishi / Self, KHI-AMM-AUH-KHI 0045-1305 (multiple crew operation)
  • 12/7/82, AP-AXL, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI- PK 281/282
  • 23/7/82, AP-AXA, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI PK 281/282
  • 28/7/82, AP-AXG, Self, KHI-RWP-IST, PK 310/709 (one overshoot due heavy rain at Rawalpindi. Pk 709, RWP-RWP taxi only)
  • 2/8/82, AP-AWU, Self, IST-FRA-PAR PK 801.
  • 4/8/82, AP-AWU, Self, PAR-ATH PK 802
  • 9/8/82, AP-AWU, Self, ATH-DAM PK 802 (Night Stop-technical. A/P rudder annunciator check faulty while taxi checks on departure. Yaw damper trouble)
  • 9/8/82, AP-AWU, Self, DAM-DAM PK 802 (taxi only)
  • 10/8/82, AP-AWU, Self, DAM-KHI PK 802
  • 17/8/82, AP-AZW, Najam, KHI-KUL-SIN, PK 773, RC
  • 19/8/82, AP-AZW, Najam, SIN-KHI, PK 773, RC
  • 21/8/82, AP-AZW, Anis Khan, KHI-BGW-KHI PK 261/262 (multiple crew, Iran/Iraq War)
  • 4/9/82, AP-AZW, Self, PEW-SHJ-PEW , PK 237/238
  • 6/9/82, AP-AXM, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI—PK281/282
  • 12/9/82, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-DXB-NBO, PK 743
  • 16/9/82, AP-AXM, Self, NBO-DXB-KHI, PK 743

     Omer born Oct 11

  • 8/11/82, AP-AWY, Self, PAR-JFK PK 801
  • 13/11/82, AP-AWY, Self, JFK-FRA PK 806
  • 30/11/82, AP-AXG, Self, KHI-DAC-KHI, PK 266/267
  • 4/12/82, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-RWP-PEK, PK 752
  • 9/12/82, AP-BAA, Self, PEK-TYO, PK 750
  • 10/12/82, AP-BAA, Self, TYO-PEK PK 751
  • 13/12/82, AP-AZW, Self, PEK-KHI, PK 753
  • 20/12/82, AP-AXM, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI
  • 28/12/82, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-KUL-SIN, PK 770 (Shahla & Omer on board for pattern, First Officer Sohail Tayyab requests jump seat)
  • 30/12/82, AP-AXA, Self, SIN-KUL-KHI, PK 773
  • 11/1/83, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-DXB-DAR, PK 791
  • 12/1/83, AP-BAA, Self, DAR-DXB-KHI, PK 792
  • 19/1/83, AP-AWU, Self, KHI-IST PK 807
  • 23/1/83, AP-AWU Self, IST-FRA-PAR, PK 801
  • 25/1/83, AP-AWY, Self, PAR-ATH PK 802 (Capt. Tajammul takes flight ex-ATH onwards, met Capt.Mazhar Ahmad in Hotel)
  • 26/1/83, AP-AXG, Self, ATH-DAM-KHI, PK 708
  • 4/2/83, AP-AXA, Self, KHI-MCT-KHI, PK 205/206
  • 9/2/83, AP-AXM, Self, KHI-AMM-AUH-KHI, PK 253/254
  • 13/2/83, AP-ATQ, Iftekhar, JED-KANO, SV 151, RF
  • 13/2/83, AP-ATQ, Iftekhar, KANO-JED, SV 152, (departure delayed due high temperature, FE adjusts throttle of overheating engine on takeoff roll)
  • 21/2/83, AP-AZW, Aqeel, KHI-BOM-KHI, PK 276 / 277
  • 4/3/83, AP-AWY, Self, KHI-ATH PK 805
  • 9/3/83, AP-BAA, Self, ATH-FCO-ATH PK 707/708
  • 14/3/83, AP-AWU, Self, ATH-DAM-KHI PK 802
  • 20/3/83, AP-AZW, Self, KHI-JED-KHI
  • 24/3/83, AP-AXA, Self, KHI-NBO, PK 745
  • 27/3/83, AP-AXG, Self, NBO-KHI, PK 744
  • 30/3/83, AP-ATQ, Self, KHI-DAM-AMM-AUH-KHI, PK 253/254 (diversion due fog)
  • 31/3/83, AP-AXM, Self, KHI-BAH-KHI, PK 211/212
  • 3/4/83, AP-AWU, Self, KHI-IST PK 801
  • 6/4/83, AP-AWY, Self, IST-AMS-FRA- PK 807
  • 9/4/83, AP-AWU, Self, FRA-JFK PK 805
  • 17/4/83, AP-AWY, Self, JFK-FRA, PK 806
  • 18/4/83, AP-AWU, Self, FRA-PAR PK 801
  • 18/4/83, AP-AWU, Self, PAR-PAR PK 802 (diversion due pressurization, First Officer S.R. Hassan, FE Nadir)
  • 18/4/83, AP-AWU, Self, PAR-ATH PK 802
  • 20/4/83, AP-BAA, Self, ATH-DAM-KHI PK 708
  • 29/4/83, AP-AZW, Munir Khan, KHI-KTM-DAC-KHI, PK 264/265-R/F
  • 6/5/83, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-MCT-KHI, PK 205/206
  • 9/5/83, AP-AZW, Self, KHI-MCT-BAH, PK225 (Incident at BAH ramp while parking)
  • 24/5/83, AP-AZW, Self, KHI-DAC-KTM-KHI, PK266/267—First Officer Nayyer Nazir
  • 26/5/83, AP-AXA, Self, KHI-KUL-SIN, PK 772
  • 31/5/83, AP-AZW, Self, Sin-KUL-KHI, PK 771
  • 2/6/83, AP-ATQ, Self, KHI-NBO, PK 745
  • 5/6/83, AP-AXM, Self, NBO-KHI, PK 744
  • 12/6/83, AP-AWU, Self, KHI-DHA-KHI, PK 851/852
  • 17/6/83, AP-AZW, Self, PEK-KHI, PK 753 (sent supy to PEK)
  • 24/6/83, AP-AWU, Self, FRA-SWF (New York) PK 805 (Capt Saeed Khan on RF)
  • 26/6/83, AP-AWY, Self, SWF (New York)—PAR PK 802 (Thunderstorm and rain on landing with crosswind. Insufficient fuel for diversion)
  • 5/7/83, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-DAC-KTM-KHI, PK266/267
  • 8/7/83, AP-BBK, Self, KHI-MCT-KHI, PK205/206
  • 9/7/83, AP-AWU, Self, KHI-ATH PK 801
  • 13/7/83, AP-AZW, Self, ATH-FCO-ATH-DAM PK 707/708
  • 18/7/83, AP-AXA, Self, KHI-BOM-KHI, PK276/277
  • 21/7/83, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-PEK, PK 750 (Ali Baba on board for pattern)
  • 24/7/83,AP-BAA, Self, PEK-NRT (TYO), PK 752
  • 25/7/83, AP-BAA, Self, NRT (TYO)—PEK, PK 753
  • 29/7/83, AP-AZW, Self, PEK-RWP-KHI, PK 751 (Shahla on board sector RWP-KHI)
  • 6/8/83, AP-AWU, Self, FRA-SWF (New York) PK 801 (First Officer Nayyar Nazir)
  • 11/8/83, AP-AWY, Self, SWF New York)–FRA PK 806
  • 18/8/83, AP-ATQ, Self, KHI-LHE-DEL-LHE-KHI, PK 346/270/271/347
  • 22/9/83, AP-AXL, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI, PK281/282
  • 28/9/83, AP-AXA, Self, PEW-DXB-PEW, PK230/229
  • 1/10/83, AP-AZW, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI, PK283/284
  • 4/10/83, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-KUL-SIN, PK 770
  • 6/10/83, AP-AXG, Self, SIN-KUL-KHI, PK 773
  • 10/10/83, AP-AXL, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI, PK 203/204
  • 11/10/83, AP-ATQ, Self, KHI-JED-KHI, PK 7331/7342
  • 13/10/83, AP-AXA, Self, KHI-PEK, PK 750
  • 16/10/83, AP-AXG, Self, PEK-NRT(TYO), PK752
  • 17/10/83, AP-AXG, Self, NRT (TYO)-PEK, PK 753
  • 21/10/83, AP-BAA, Self, PEK-RWP, PK 751
  • 27/10/83, AP-BBK, Self, KHI-CMB-KHI, PK774/773 (First Officer Pervaiz Jung. Checked him for coming late and not wearing tie)
  • 4/11/83, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-DOH-MUX-PEW, PK281/282 (diverted to MUX due fog at KHI)
  • 8/11/83, AP-AWU, Self, RWP-ANK, PK 857 (Earthquake Relief Flight, First Officer Khalid Hamza)
  • 23/11/83, AP-ATQ, M.R. Mirza /Self, LHE-JED-LHE, PK747, 0202-1340 (multiple crew
  • 29/11/83, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-DAC-KTM-KHI, PK266/267
  • 2/12/83, AP-AXA, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI, PK281/282
  • 4/12/83, AP-AZW, Self, KHI-AUH-NBO, PK 743
  • 9/12/83, AP-BAA, Self, NBO-AUH-KHI, PK 746

      Fatima born Jan 8

  • 2/2/84, AP-BBK, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI, PK203/204 (took flight from Zia-ur-Rehman)
  • 8/2/84, AP-ATQ, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI, PK281/282
  • 28/2/84, AP-AXG, Self, KHI-DAC-KTM-KHI, PK266/267 (Capt Mumtaz Shah in demoted status as First Officer. Fight with Capt. Waheed Salaam)
  • 7/3/84, AP-BBK, Self, KHI-MCT-KHI, PK205/206
  • 10/3/84, AP-AXM, Self, LHE-DEL-LHE, PK270/271 (Captain Zahid Mian on R/F)
  • 15/3/84, AP-AWU, Self, KHI-SHJ-KHI, PK897/898
  • 4/4/84, AP-AZW, Self, KHI-MCT-KHI, PK205/206
  • 5/4/84, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-BAH-KHI, PK211/212
  • 10/4/84, AP-ATQ, Self, KHI-DXB-PEW, PK221/222 (did not fly PEW-KHI due weather)
  • 19/4/84, AP-ATQ, Self, KHI-AUH-NBO, PK 745
  • 22/4/84, AP-AXA, Self, NBO-AUH-KHI, PK 744
  • 26/4/84, AP-AZW, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI, PK 281/282
  • 28/4/84, AP-AWY, Self, KHI-ATH PK 801
  • 2/5/84, AP-BAA, Self, ATH-FCO-ATH PK 707/708 (First Officer Raffat Jamil)
  • 9/5/84, AP-AXA, Self, ATH-KHI PK 708
  • 14/5/84, AP-BBK, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI, PK203/204
  • 16/5/84, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-KWI-KHI, PK215/216—First Officers Feiz Mehdi and Yasin
  • 7/6/84, AP-AXL, Self, LHE-DEL-LHE, PK 270/271, F/E Nosherwani
  • 8/6/84, AP-AXG, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI, PK 281/282
  • 14/6/84, AP-BBK, Self, LHE-DEL-LHE, PK 270/271
  • 18/6/84, AP-ATQ, Self, KHI-MCT-KHI, PK 225/226
  • 27/6/84, AP-AZW, Self, KHI-ATH PK 707
  • 1/7/84, AP-AWU, Self, ATH-FRA PK 801
  • 5/7/84, AP-AWU, Self, PAR-JFK PK 805 (First Officer Shujauddin, First Officer Iqbal Zaidi , observer)
  • 9/7/84, AP-AWY, Self, JFK-PAR PK 802
  • 16/7/84, AP-ATQ, Self, KHI-BOM-KHI, Pk274/275
  • 18/7/84, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI, Pk281/282
  • 18/8/84, AP-BBK, Suri, KHI-DOH-AUH-KHI, Pk281/282 (Evaluation for Route Check Captain, First Officer Ahmer Mirza)
  • 25/10/84, AP-ATQ, Khalid Iqbal, KHI-AUH-KHI, PK217/218—Route Check
  • 1/11/84, AP-AWU, Self, KHI-CAI, PK815 (one overshoot at CAI due poor visibility.  First Officer Junaid Abbasi, F/E Nosherwani. Visited the pyramids. Indira Gandhi shot dead in New Delhi)
  • 4/11/84, AP-AWU, Self, CAI-DXB-KHI, PK 806
  • 28/11/84, AP-ATQ, Self / Asad Ali, KHI-AMM-AUH-KHI, PK 253/254 (multiple crew)
  • 4/12/84, AP-AXA, Farrukh / Self, KHI-KTM-DAC-KHI, PK 266/267 (multiple crew)
  • 5/12/84, AP-BBK, Self, KHI-DHA-KHI, PK 243/244
  • 24/12/84, AP-BBK, Self, KHI-AUH-DOH-KHI, PK 203/204

     Ayesha born Dec 28

  • 28/12/84, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-BGW-KHI, PK 261/262 (multiple crew, Iran / Iraq War)
  • 2/1/85, AP-AXA, Self, KHI-KHI-AMM-AUH-KHI,, PK 253/254
  • 10/1/85, AP-AXM, Self, LHE-DEL-LHE, PK 270/271
  • 14/1/85, AP-AXA, Self, KHI-BAH-AUH-KHI, PK 211/212
  • 18/1/85, AP-AXG, Self, KHI-BGW-KHI, PK 261/262 (multiple crew, Iran/Iraq War)
  • 21/1/85, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-JED-KHI, PK 7332/7342
  • 23/1/85, AP-AWU, Self, KHI-SHJ-KHI, PK 855/856
  • 8/2/85, AP-AXG, Self, KHI-BGW-KHI, PK 261/262 (multiple crew, Iran/Iraq War)
  • 10/2/85, AP-WU, Self, KHI-ATH PK 803
  • 14/2/85, AP-AWU, Self, ATH-DXB-KHI PK 806
  • 2/3/85, AP-AXL, Self, LHE-DEL-LHE, PK 270/271
  • 5/3/85, AP-BAA, Pervaiz Saeed, KHI-DOH-AUH-KHI, PK285/286 (Standards Check, First Officer S.R. Hasan)
  • 15/3/85, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-BGW-KHI, Pk261/262
  • 19/3/85, AP-AXG, Self, KHI-DOH-AUH-KHI, PK 285/286
  • 2/4/85, AP-BBK, Self, KHI-BOM-KHI, PK 274/275
  • 10/4/85, AP-AXG, Self, KHI-DOH-AUH-KHI, PK 281/282
  • 16/4/85, AP-BBK, Self, KHI-KTM-KHI, PK 268/269
  • 17/4/85, AP-BBK, Self, KHI-AUH-KHI, PK 217/218
  • 27/4/85, AP-AWU, Self, FRA-DXB-KHI PK 802
  • 7/5/85, AP-BBK, Self, KHI-DAC-KHI, PK 266/267
  • 8/5/85, AP-AXG, Self, KHI-KWI-KHI, PK 215/216
  • 12/5/85, AP-AWU, Self, KHI-ATH, PK 803 (aircraft flown without autopilot with first officer’s help)
  • 16/5/85, AP-AWY, Self, ATH-DXB-KHI PK 806
  • 6/6/85, AP-AWY Self, KHI-ATH PK 805 (FE Tauheed)
  • 8/6/85, AP-AWY, Self, ATH-ZRH-FRA- PK 801
  • 15/6/85, AP-AWY, Self, KHI-ATH, PK 801
  • 16/6/85, AP-AWY, Self, ATH-PAR-ATH, PK 803/804
  • 20/6/85, AP-AWU, Self, ATH-FRA-ATH PK 805/806
  • 22/6/85, AP-AWY, Self, ATH-DXB-KHI PK 802 (dispatcher requests departure with emergency landing gear flags not visible in cabin, cargo configuration, cites delay)
  • 28/6/85, AP-AXG, Self, KHI-DOH-AUH-KHI, PK 281/282
  • 6/7/85, AP-AWY, Self, FRA-ATH-PK 802
  • 7/7/85, AP-AWU, Self, ATH-DXB-KHI, PK 804
  • 10/7/85, AP-AWU, Self, KHI-ATH, PK 817
  • 11/7/85, AP-AWY, Self, ATH-DXB-KHI PK 806
  • 18/7/85, AP-AWY, Self, KHI-ATH, PK 805 (engine shut down at TOD ATH due fire warning. 3 Engine landing, First Officer Yusuf Mamsa, FE Hamid Mahmood)
  • 20/7/85, AP-AWY, Self, ATH-ZRH-FRA, PK 801/802 (lightning Strike at FRA)
  • 25/7/85, AP-AXA, Self, KHI-JED-KHI, PK1411/1412, Hajj
  • 30/7/85, AP-BBK, Self, KHI-JED-KHI, PK1431/1432, Hajj
  • 1/8/85, AP-AXM, Self, KHI-SAH-NBO, PK 745
  • 4/8/85, AP-AZW, Self, NBO-AUH-KHI, PK 744
  • 8/8/85, AP-AXA, Self, KHI-JED-KHI, PK1473/1474 Hajj
  • 18/8/85, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-RWP-PEK, PK 752 (Capt. Ghani Akbar, First Officer F.H.K. Ghori other crew at Hotel)
  • 22/8/85, AP-AZW, Self, PEK-NRT (Tokyo), PK 750
  • 23/8/85, AP-AZW, Self, NRT (Tokyo)-PEK, PK 751
  • 26/8/85, AP-BAA, Self, PEK-RWP-KHI, PK 753
  • 1/9/85, AP-BBK, Self, KHI-JED-KHI, PK1425/1426, Hajj
  • 10/9/85, AP-BBK, Self, JED-KHI, PK1432, Hajj
  • 12/9/85, AP-BAA, Self, KHI-PEK, PK 750 (aircraft flown without autopilot [did not engage] from takeoff Karachi with help from first officer)
  • 16/9/85, AP-BAA, Self, PEK-NRT (Tokyo), PK 750
  • 17/9/85, AP-BAA, Self, NRT (Tokyo)-PEK, PK 753
  • 20/9/85, AP-AZW, Self, PEK-RWP, PK 751
  • 17/11/85, AP-AXA, Self, KHI-DHA-KHI, PK 245/246
  • 18/11/85, AP-AXL, Self, KHI-BAH-KHI, PK 211/212
  • 22/11/85, AP-AZW, Self, KHI-DOH-KHI, PK 285/286
  • 5/12/85, AP-AZW, Self, KHI-SAH-NBO, PK 745 (Navigation Officer Hassan additionally GM Fuel )
  • 8/12/85, AP-BBK, Self, NBO-AUH-KHI, PK 744
  • 12/12/85, AP-AWU, Self, KHI-SHJ-KHI, PK 867/868



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 F-27 Northern Area

June 26, 1971, AP-ATO,  F-27, Zuberi, LHE-MUX-UET-KHI

On sector MUX-UET, we crossed a reciprocal F-27 flight near Multan (Capt. Nasim, F/O S.A. Aziz) who painted a cloudy picture enroute and near Quetta. Near destination captain had to be reminded to change to QFF setting for the altimeter. The safety altitude was 14500 feet and we were at or slightly above with the reset altimeter in IMC over terrain. He started a descent through a gap in the clouds, and made it but there was anxiety. After arrival at the ramp, he was first out to greet the Governor of Baluchistan, who had travelled with us, and for whom the foolhardiness was enacted.

MUX = Multan

UET = Quetta

QFF = Regional sea level pressure set on the altimeter. Once past the Multan area, the altimeter is reset to the standard sea level pressure (1013.2 millibars), but reset again near destination to the regional barometric sea level pressure (QFF) prevailing in the area for altitude accuracy.

IMC = Instrument Meteorological Conditions, meaning you are in clouds and flying on instruments

May 30, 1972 AP-AUW, F-27, Rahat, KHI-Masirah-SLL-Masirah-KHI

Flight time outbound: 0455

Flight time inbound: 0530

Cockpit crew comprised of Capt S.H. Rahat, Capt F.H.K. Ghori, and First Officer S.M. Husain. This was a flight conducted to carry Pakistani labour working at Salalah. We landed at Masirah Island enroute to discharge some passengers. On departure from Salalah, we were briefed by the airport personnel to avoid the hills on the climb out for there was an insurgency active in the area. On sector Masirah—Karachi, the captains were discussing amongst themselves about the depleting fuel situation as a direct route had been taken from Masirah to destination. A ditching possibility was even considered as an alternative. However we landed safely at destination.

SLL = Salalah, Oman

 March 18, 1974, AP-AXA, B707, Israr, KHI-JED-NBO

On departure from Jeddah, the flight plan signed for was left behind at the table in the restaurant. The result was hectic activity with the Jeppesen charts and time interpolation to pass on the ETAs to the respective radio control centers. Captain didn’t lose his cool but I don’t know who was to be blamed actually?

JED = Jeddah

NBO = Nairobi

ETA = Estimated time of arrival

AP-AWZ at Heathrow

AP-AWZ at Heathrow

April 18, 1974, AP-AWZ, B707, Ishaq, SIN-KUL-CMB-KHI

Cockpit Crew: Captain M. Ishaq, First Officer Idrees Ahmed , First Officer S.M. Husain, Flight Engineer Fazal, and Navigation Officer  R.I.  James

Extensive weather encountered on sector KUL-CMB. Starting with the takeoff in heavy rain with an active thunderstorm and captain instructing First Officer Idrees to monitor his climb out and observe the VSI for any downward swing. There was a small hill at the end of the runway on the departure end. The radar was on continuously but switched off at times for rest. Continuous flashes of lightning throughout the sector, heavy turbulence, with attendant static discharges on the windshield (St Elmo’s fire). The landing at Colombo was also in rain, in IMC to start with, and through an instrument let down. This flight remains in my memory for a superb display of command.

SIN = Singapore

KUL = Kuala Lumpur

CMB = Colombo

IMC = Instrument Meteorological Conditions

VSI = Vertical Speed Indicator

May 26, 1974, AP-AWV, B707, Hashmi, KHI-RWP-PEK

Captain was hauled up by Air Traffic Control at Beijing, our destination for going off the airway. The Chinese controllers impressed on him to fly the air corridor like a straight line, which is not possible during turns, such as the one beyond Urumchi at Fukang, when you turn to fly east-south-east, the aircraft swings in an arc through more than ninety degrees.

June 15, 1974, AP-AXA (B707), Omair, KHI-ADE-NBO-DAR-NBO

Captain didn’t let me touch the controls on this four sector flight. He must have been really tired at the end. The total flying time was 8.20 hours, not to mention block times. At Dar-es-Salaam, in honour of visiting dignitary Kenneth Kaunda at the airport, we witnessed a spectacular African dance festival, simultaneously with an aging DC-3 doing touch and go at the airport.

ADE = Aden

DAR = Dar-es-Salaam

NBO = Nairobi

Oct 26, 1976, 1716 –2105 Z, Capt. Shafiq Qadri in a B720, AP-ATQ, on sector Jeddah-Nairobi

During a flight to Nairobi, Jomo Kenyatta International, we were cleared by the Nairobi Approach for a Runway 06 arrival using the Instrument Landing System (ILS) via the Golf Golf (GG) radio beacon. Captain Shafiq did a hold over GG and then continued to intercept the ILS 06 procedure and landed safely. While parked in the holding area near the runway waiting for KLM to touch down, we were queried by the tower for reason for the hold over GG*, as advised by the approach controller. Capt Shafiq apologized for this oversight and was apparently let off for we didn’t hear anything on the matter after that.

*The captain was cleared for an ILS Runway 06 procedure, so the hold over Golf Golf beacon was not authorized. In other words, he had to depart the GG beacon on the instrument landing procedure without any delay, and not hold over GG and then go for the landing procedure.


August 16, 1978,  Siraj Ali, B747-282B, AP-AYV, Sector DXB-RWP, 1230-1527

DXB = Dubai

RWP = Rawalpindi (Islamabad).

Timings are GMT or the modern UTC.

It was Ramadan and our arrival at Islamabad was just after Iftar, sunset. Captain was flying the sector and made a visual approach for landing on Runway 30 after joining right downwind (runway is to right). This means the aircraft is flying in a southeasterly direction (120 degrees magnetic) over Islamabad and short of Barakao Firing Range will turn right and right again to align with the runway (300 degrees magnetic). He had also broken his fast earlier in the cockpit a little while ago. On final approach after gear and full flaps had been selected, Flight Engineer Hasan alerted me about the aircraft going below the glideslope (descent path)*. I gave the captain a call of one dot below glideslope as we approached the locator outer marker (5 miles out). This was repeated by me at least twice, all to no avail and the aircraft sank further on the slope as we continued. I brought my left hand over the power levers meaning to open up immediately. This resulted in the captain coming out of his trance and applying power. We eventually caught up the glide slope and landed safely. During the roll out after landing, the captain admonished me for not giving him proper call outs during the approach. I immediately replied that he should refrain from fasting while flying. He kept quiet. In 1986, the captain survived a serious mishap at the same airfield with another set of crew when the landing was made without the gear down.

*For non-aviators, flying the glideslope is descending on an electronic beam via your cockpit instruments (Instrument Landing System). The system is incorporated in aircraft and airport.

On April 22, 1984, B707, AP-AXA, Pakistan Seven Four Four, sector Nairobi-Abu-Dhabi, 1405-1910Z.

After departure from Nairobi with First Officer Asrar H. Khan and being handed over (transferred)  to Mogadishu Tower by East Air Centre and in contact with it while overflying Somali airspace,  I heard over the common Radio Telephone (R/T), Mogadishu clearing a Somali flight on a reciprocal track through our level*. We were in clouds and I immediately contacted Mogadishu tower repeating time over Mogadishu with level and also to the reciprocal flight giving him our data, position and level. I wrote this up in the debrief and it was taken up by our flight operations department via ICAO with East Air Center.

* Reciprocal means coming from the opposite direction. Through our level means, the opposing direction flight will climb through our cruising level on maybe a collision course. This clearance can be properly affected in absence of radar, through positive knowledge of aircraft’s position and timed separation. Thereafter on many other flights over Somalia, Mogadishu Tower never replied to my transmissions though we kept our ears open. There was another frequency 126.7 MHz on which all aircraft used to give blind transmissions giving their data to listeners whoever was interested and 121.5, the international distress was kept selected on the secondary VHF communication receiver.

Photos are courtesy of Historyof

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PIA Air Hostess Uniforms from 1954-86

AH 3AH 2

1954 to 1956 (Photo 1 & 2)

PIA Air Hostess uniform design from 1954 to 1956. The uniform comprised of skirt, jacket, and blouse with matching cap.

Momi Gul      AH 1

This photo (3-1) shows PIA’s legendary Air Hostess Momi Gul Durrani in 1950s uniform. This uniform was jointly designed by well-known Pakistani dress designer Laila Shahzada and Chausie Fountainer, an American woman of French descent who as cabin crew trainer was with PIA on a 5 year deputation from Pan American World Airways. In this design a white shalwar and dupatta were set off by a green shirt with white cuffs and collar. Shoes and bags were black. The most interesting item of this uniform was a jaunty green cap for the hostesses. This uniform design was used from 1956 to 1960

1975-1986 (photos 4 & 5)

AH 4     AH 5

PIA hired famous national and international dress designers for designing of uniforms worn by their flight attendants. These designers include famous names like Feroze Cowasji, Pierre Cardin and Sir Hardy Amies. This photo of PIA Air Hostesses was taken in 1975. British dress designer Sir Hardy Amies, best known for being royal dress maker to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II of United Kingdom, was responsible for the uniform that came in 1975. The purple and magenta kameezes had embroidered fronts, with green shalwars and pretty printed dupattas inspired by the folk wear of Pakistani village women. Teamed with black bags and smartly styled comfortable black leather sandals, these bright uniforms introduced a cheerful note on board PIA.

PIA Air Hostess Sabeena Iftikhar (photo 5) wearing uniform designed by Sir Hardy Amies. The printed dupatta was inspired by the folk wear of Pakistani village women.

Courtesy: History of

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“Good planning and preparation enable the survivor to confront difficulties and dangers that pose a serious threat to survival. They become contingencies for which you are equipped. But you cannot anticipate everything. You must be ready to respond rapidly to the unexpected danger and to deal with potential disaster rationally and realistically. You must overcome the tendency to panic which in such conditions so easily engenders and take the action appropriate to the situation.

Sometimes a collision or other accident occurs with no warning of any kind, but in most instances there is a moment of realization that something is going to happen and it is in that moment that instinctive reaction can save lives. In many situations there is considerable time in which an awareness of potential disaster can develop and that is when the panic reaction is probably most dangerous. As mist closes in on a hillside, reducing visibility to almost nothing and making it easy to lose any sense of direction, most people would begin to panic at the thought that they are going to be trapped. They begin to do foolish things and increase their danger whereas they should be assessing the possibilities and looking for some suitable shelter in which to wait until conditions become safe to continue. Keeping calm, in the knowledge that you have the ability to handle the situation, will not only enable you to see it through but also see other solutions that may present themselves.

Some situations are predictable and knowledge of the techniques for handling them will minimize the risks. Learn them; they may save your life. They may take considerable nerve—like waiting for the right moment to escape from a car that is sinking under water—but they are based on experience and sound principles. The answer to more general survival problems, however, will often lie in inspired improvisation drawing on those skills appropriate to the situation.

Disaster may involve you in a contained situation which you must handle alone—or you may find yourself one of the hundreds of people in a large-scale disaster over which there can be no control at all. There is enormous difference between coping with motoring accidents and dealing with an air disaster.


Brake failure: if brakes fail while driving, change gear and apply the handbrake. You must do several things at once: take your foot off the accelerator, flick the switch of your warnings lights, pump the footbrake rapidly (it may still connect), change down through the gears and apply handbrake pressure. Don’t slam the brake on, begin with gentle bursts, gradually braking harder until you stop.

If there is no time for all this, take your foot off the accelerator and change down through the gears—and grab the handbrake—but DON’T apply maximum pressure you are sure you won’t skid. Look out for escape lanes and places where you can leave the road, preferably a soft bank or a turning that has an uphill slope.

If speed remains unchecked, on a steep hill for example, brush the car along a hedge or wall to reduce speed. Take advantage of a vehicle in front and use it to stop you—run into it as gently as the situation allows. Use warning lights, blow your horn and flash your headlights to give the driver in front as much warning as possible that you are on a collision course.

Collision: if collision seems inevitable, stay with it and steer the car to do as little damage to others and yourself as possible. Try to avoid a sudden stop by driving into something which will give. A fence is better than a wall, a clump of small saplings better than a tree—they will eventually stop you but a tree or wall will bring you to a dead stop—and probably very dead.  Seat belts (compulsory in many countries) will help stop your plunging forwards through the windscreen, but unbelted it is better NOT to try to brace yourself against collision. In the rare exception bracing may work, but generally it means only that when the car stops you continue travelling, doing even more damage than if you had gone with the collision, because your deceleration on impact is more sudden. Throw your arms around your head to protect it and twist sideways, away from the steering wheel, while flinging yourself TOWARDS the point of collision. It sounds difficult but, on collision, that steering wheel is like a ram in front of your rib cage. Back seat passengers should similarly protect their heads and lie against the back of the front seats.

Jumping out:  do NOT try to jump out of a runaway car unless you know it to be headed for a cliff or other substantial drop and will not survive the impact. Then open the door, undo safety belt, begin to roll yourself into a ball—tuck the head tightly into the chest, bring feet and knee together, tightly tuck elbows into the sides, hands up by the ears, then bend at the waist. Drop from the car in a rolling movement. Do not resist the ground but keep balled up and continue to roll.

Car under water: if possible abandon the car before it sinks, for it will not sink immediately and will take time to fill. Water pressure on the outside makes it very difficult to open the door so roll down the window if you can and wriggle out of it. It takes great presence of mind to manage that when subject to the shock and surprise of the ‘splash down’, but if there are small children in the car it may be possible to push one through. Do not try to save possessions.

If you have not been fast enough CLOSE the window firmly, get children to stand and lift babies near to the roof. Release seat belts and tell everyone by a door to be ready with a hand on the handle. Release at once any automatic door locks or master locks. Water could prevent them from working. Do not attempt to pen doors at this stage.

As water fills the interior, air will be trapped near the roof. The water pressure inside the car will nearly equalize the pressure with that of the outside water. As the car comes to rest and is nearly full of water tell everyone to take a deep breath, open the doors and swim to the surface breathing out as they do so. Everyone leaving through the same door should link arms. If you have to wait for someone to get out before you, hold your breath for that moment.

Precaution: Always park alongside water, not running towards it. If you have to park a car facing water then leave it in reverse gear and with the handbrake on (if facing away from water, in first gear with handbrake on).

Car on railway tracks: if your car breaks down on an unmanned level crossing, put it into gear and use the starter motor to jerk it clear. This will work with a manual gear change but not with an automatic. If a train is approaching abandon the car, carry children or infirm persons to safety and keep away—about 45 meters (50 yards) should be far enough—for if a train is travelling at high speed it could fling car wreckage quite a distance.

If there is no train visible, or you can see one several miles in the distance, you must try to avert the collision. If the car can be moved by pushing, push it clear of all tracks—you cannot be sure which one the train will be on. If there is an emergency telephone, warn signalmen further down the track of the situation. If not, walk up the track towards the train. Stand well to one side (high speed trains have quite a slipstream) and wave a car blanket or bright coloured garment to warn the driver. If he is doing his job properly he will know that he is approaching a crossing and should look ahead to see that all is clear.


A ‘plane crash or forced landing in difficult terrain is one of the most dramatic of disaster scenarios. Since it could happen anywhere, the individual cannot prepare for any specific situation. Airline cabin staff is trained for such emergencies and you should follow their instructions. Aircrew will be trying to land the plane as safely as possible; there is nothing you can do except to keep calm and support the crew in calming the other passengers.

To prepare for a crash landing tighten the seat belt, link arms with other people either side, hold your chin firmly down your chest, lean forwards over a cushion, folded blanket or coat, interlink legs with your neighbours if seating permits it and brace yourself for impact. When the aircraft finally stops moving—and not before—evacuate the aircraft as instructed in the pre-flight brief. If a ground landing, then quickly get away from the immediate area of the plane, as there is a danger of fire explosion. Even if there is no fire, keep away until the engines have cooled and any spilt fuel evaporated.

If ditching into water, dinghies will be automatically inflated and anchored on the wings. Do not inflate your own life jacket while you are in the aircraft. To do so would restrict your exit. Wait until you are in the water and then pull the toggle to inflate it and get into a dinghy. If the plane is sinking, release the dinghy from its anchorage as soon as the passengers and equipment are stowed. As you leave the plane the more kit you can take with you the better. But do not stop to gather personal belongings and luggage. This is when you will be very glad you have a survival kit in your pocket.

Note: If bailing out from a plane by parachute in wild country, make your way to the wreck if you can—the wreckage will be much more noticeable to rescuers than a single-person parachute.

After The Crash

However self-disciplined you are, the entry into this kind of survival situation will be dramatic, abrupt and confusing. You will be in a state of shock and may be on the verge of panic. If there is fire or risk of a fire or explosion keep at a distance until that danger seems to have passed, but no further away than seems necessary for safety. Do not allow anyone to smoke if fuel has been spilled.

You must not blunder off into unknown terrain, especially at night, and need to maintain contact with other survivors. Move injured persons to a safe distance with you and try to account for all the people involved. The immediate treatment of the injured is a priority. Treat cases in order of severity of their injuries and with each individual deal first with breathing difficulties, then in sequence, with major bleeding wounds, fractures and shock. Separate the dead from the living if possible—the deaths are part of the frightening strangeness of the event and the survivors will be easier to calm down. Even with a fire, all may not have been destroyed. Investigate the wreckage and salvage whatever you can of the equipment, food, clothing and water. Take NO risks if there is still a chance that fuel tanks could ignite and beware of any noxious fumes from wreckage which has been smouldering. If you have to wait for fire to burn out, take stock of the location in which you find yourself—which should in any case be the next step in your strategy.

Is it practical and safe to remain where you are? If your anticipated route is known—and with a flight it will be—some kind of search and rescue operation can be expected and there are considerable advantages in staying where you are. Searchers will already have some idea of your location, and even if you have been forced off route they will have a record of your last reported position. The wreckage or grounded plane will be more noticeable from the air, especially in heavily wooded country where even a large group of people will be hidden by the trees. If you find that you are in a very exposed or dangerous location then a move to a more protected position is necessary. However, do not move at night unless the threat to life outweighs the risks of trying to negotiate unknown terrain in the dark.

Leave an indication on the crash site of the direction in which you have moved off, so that it is possible for rescuers to know that there are survivors and to know which direction to go on looking.

The usual reason for making an immediate move will be because you are in an exposed position on a mountain or hillside offering no protection from the elements or at risk from rock falls or other dangers there. Move down, not up the slope, as conditions are likely to be less exposed on lower ground. Do not all go off looking for a safer location. Send out scouts to investigate the surrounding terrain carefully. They must keep together, working in pairs, and not go off on individual explorations. They can maintain contact vocally and should mark their routes as they proceed so that they can easily retrace their steps.

Remember this it may save your life one day. YOU MUST PLAN

  1. P=Protection
  2. L= Location
  3. A= Acquisition
  4. N= Navigation

Protection: The first requirement will probably be some immediate shelter from the elements, especially for the injured. A more extended reconnaissance can follow to choose a proper campsite. Make the most of any natural shelter and augment it by using whatever materials are at hand. If injuries are too severe for a person to be moved, some kind of shelter must be provided for them on the spot.

On bare ground, if there is no equipment or wreckage which can be utilized, then the only thing to do is dig down. If possible find a natural hollow and burrow deeper, using the excavated earth to build up the sides. This will at least get a casualty out of the wind. Get a fire going to provide warmth (it will also help raise morale) and use reflectors to maximize the heating effect, enabling you to conserve fuel. If the circumstances make movement away unnecessary or impossible, follow similar procedures. Build up rocks, wreckage or equipment to form a wind break if no natural shelter is available. If in a group huddle together, it will reduce the loss of body heat. Survival time for badly injured persons in these circumstances is limited and you must hope for an early rescue. Fit people must go off in search of water, fuel, shelter materials and food—but always in at least pairs. Lay out as many signals as possible to attract attention.

Remember shelter may be as necessary from sun as it is from wind and cold. Exposure is not only a matter of hypothermia.

Location: if you have a radio you can signal for help—but do not go back on board a damaged and still potentially explosive aircraft to do so. Wait until you are sure it is quite safe. The rescue party will want to know your location. Those who have been traveling overland should have a pretty good idea of their position—even if temporarily lost—and with a map should be able to give a more accurate fix. If you the victim of a disaster in the sea or air, however, it will help considerably if you know what your planned course was and have some idea of your position when disaster struck, as well as of wind or current directions. As often as not you must light fires—three fires are an internationally recognized distress signal. Make them as large as possible. Lay ground signals to attract attention, use pyrotechnics when you know help is within range and even make a noise when help is very near. This is when you are glad that the responsible authorities were told of your intentions and that you kept precisely to your route. It is only a matter of time before rescue comes. Meanwhile make yourself as comfortable as possible.

However, even the most careful laid plans may go astray. Navigational instruments could fail, storms, high winds or fog could all throw you off course and there you are, safe in your shelter but with no one knowing where. You could have a longer wait than you anticipate and you need to provide for it.

You also need to assess where you are on a more local scale, to study the terrain for anything it can tell you, not only to pin-point your position—if that is possible—but to see if there are safer and more comfortable locations to pitch camp, sources for fuel, food and water. In the long term you will also be assessing the possibility of making your own way across the land.

At sea you will be looking out for any indications that, rather than staying put, there is land close enough for your survival chances to be greater if you try to reach it rather than holding your present position. But  you at the mercy of wind and current, though you can delay your drift with a sea anchor.

On land, it is seldom most sensible to set out immediately to walk to safety, rather than wait for a rescue. However, if you know that no one will be aware that you are missing, if the terrain is so barren that it provides no food, water or shelter, or if you feel convinced that your reserves of energy and rations are sufficient to see you back in civilization, or to a location where you are sure you will be able to live off the land, you may decide to set off as soon as the light is good enough or conditions are otherwise right.

Acquiring Food and Water: On an isolated cliff ledge, cut off by the tide or forced by storm or mist to wait until you can move on, there may be little opportunity to exploit natural resources. Do not tuck into your emergency rations immediately. You may be there for some time and, hungry though you may be, you should ration them out, allowing for a much longer wait than even a pessimistic assessment suggests. Even in such a situation there may be water and food within reach.

Elsewhere save your emergency rations for when there is nothing else and tap nature’s resources first. Do not just find one source of food. Seek out a variety of plants for leaves, fruit, nuts, roots and other edible parts. Look for signs of animals which can be trapped or hunted.

When it is your very survival at stake there is no place for squeamishness about what you will or will not eat or about how you acquire your food, but that does not mean that you should totally concern for wild life and the environment. When there is abundance of other choices there is no reason to take already endangered species for your food—animal or vegetable—not to set traps (which cannot discriminate in what they catch and maim) that will produce more meat than you can eat fresh or preserve. Making the most of nature’s resources does not mean plundering them. Over-exploitation will be to your own disadvantage if you have to stay in the area for a long time.

Remember, too, that the most easily obtained nutritious food may be quite different from what you usually eat. If you have already learnt to eat an unusual diet as part of your training you will find it much easier to feed yourself and will be able to encourage others to eat the same things.

 In the short-term water is much more vital than food for your survival. If fresh running water is not available there are many other sources you can tap, but sterilize or boil to ensure that it is pure. Make finding water sources a priority.

 Fuel for a fire will be needed for boiling water even if the temperature does not demand a fire for warmth—but do not be deluded into thinking that a warm day is going to be followed by a warm night. There can be dramatic temperature changes from day to night in some parts of the world.

Navigation: Although in many circumstances it will be best to stay near to the scene of a crash, because there is material and equipment from a plane or vehicle, or its wreckage, which can be used and because your location is more likely to be known to rescuers, if you have made the decision to move you will need skills in direction-finding and in navigating your way through the terrain to safety.


In a disaster situation anyone may react unexpectedly under stress. With a mishap affecting members of the general public there may be a very varied group of people thrown together. Men, women and children, elderly-people and babies. There may be pregnant women and people with medical problems or physical disabilities that require particular attention. The accident situations that involve such a varied group are likely to involve a higher risk of injuries than among a hand-picked group of the trained and fit.

Babies may look very fragile—but they are very tough. However, they must be kept warm. Children will need reassuring and comforting, especially if they have lost the people with them or they are themselves in pain. Often the adventure of the situation will help to keep them from becoming too worried and it will help to keep them occupied, but they should not be allowed to wander, to play with fire or otherwise expose themselves to further danger.

With ship or commercial airline the ship’s officers or flight crew can be expected to take charge of the situation, if they are among the survivors, but there will not be the military chain of command or the acceptance of leadership and responsibility which can expected in compact organized group. Some democratic procedure to make decisions, plan action and maintain morale must be attempted. The trauma of the experience may leave some people eager to follow any leadership which gives them hope, but it will also throw into relief antagonisms and prejudices which must be overcome.

In an air or sea disaster people of different cultures and backgrounds may be thrown together and forced into situations which their own social taboos would not permit. Considerable tact may be necessary to overcome these problems. SURVIVAL, however, must take precedence.

The wider your medical knowledge the better, but giving people the will to survive will be important and much of this can be achieved by a good ‘bedside manner’—if you can give the impression that you know what you are doing you are half-way there.

Calmness and confidence in you will inspire the confidence and cooperation of others. The more knowledge you have the better you will be able to cope.”

Courtesy: The SAS Survival Handbook by John Wiseman, Harper Collins, Hammersmith, London 1996.


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